Ibn Hajar al Asqalani (d. 852 AH)

 

Imām al Hāfidh Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalānī

His Name and Lineage:

The full name of the famous Imām, al Hāfidh Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalānī is Abū al Fadl, Shihabuddīn Ahmad bin ‘Ali bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ahmad al Kinanī ash Shāfi’ī.

His Birth:

Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalānī was born on 10th Sha’bān, 773 H. in Egypt, where he grew up also.

His Education:

He memorized the Qur’ān at the age of nine years and also memorized Al-Hawi, the book Muktasar of Ibn al Hajib, and other books. He traveled to Makkah and listened to the teaching of its ‘ulemā. He admired the knowledge of Hadīth and began to acquire it from the great mashāyikh in Hījāz, ash Shām, Egypt and stayed with az Zain al ‘Irāqī for ten years. He also studied under al Balqinī, Ibn al Mulaqqin and others. Many eminent mashāyikh of his time approved his knowledge and allowed him to give religious verdicts and teach.

He had learned the two sources (Qur’ān and Hadīth) from al ‘Izz bin Jama’a, the language from al Majd al Fairūzabādī, the ‘Arabic from al ‘Amarī, literature and poetry from al Badr al Mushtakī and writing from a group of professors. He also recited some parts of the Qur’ān in all the seven styles of recitation before at Tanūkhī.

He occupied himself with the promotion of the knowledge of hadīth, so he dwelt in its study, teaching, writing and giving fatāwa (religious verdicts). He also taught the tafsīr, the hadīth, the fiqh (jurisprudence) and preached at many places like Al Azhar, Jāmi’ ‘Amr and others. He also dictated to his students from his memory. Many highly educated people and distinguished scholars traveled to him to acquire from his vast knowledge.

His Books:

Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalānī authored more than 150 books – most of them being in the studies of Hadīth – which flourished during his lifetime, and the kings and princes exchanged them as gifts. His book most worthy of mentioning is Fath al Bārī – the commentary of Sahīh al Bukhārī, which he had started in the beginning of 807 H., after finishing its introductory part in 813 H., and completed the whole commentary in Rajab 842 H. After the completion of the commentary, he held a party attended by the Muslim dignitaries and spent 500 dinār on it. Then some kings requested for it and paid 300 dinār.

His Positions:

Ibn Hajar became the Qādī of Egypt, then ash Shām was also added to his jurisdiction which he held for more than twenty-one years. He was against holding the office of the qādī at first, until the Sultān assigned to him a special case, then he accepted to represent al Bakinī when he begged him very much to preside for him as qādī. Then he presided for others until he was assigned to hold the office of Chief Qādī on 12 Muharram, 827 H. He then left, but he had to take the office left of the Chief Qādī, for seven times until he led it finally in 852 H. which is the year he died in.

His Personality:

As concerns his personality, al ‘Asqalānī was humble, tolerant, patient and enduring. He was also described to be hilarious, steadfast, prudent, ascetic. selfless, generous, spender in charity and a person praying and fasting voluntarily. On the other hand he was said to be used to telling of humorous anecdotes. He had also good manners of dealing with all the Imām whether highly or lowly placed, and with all those who sat with him whether old or young.

His Death:

Ibn Hajar died after the ‘Isha prayer on Saturday, 8th Dhul Hijja 852 H.

May Allāh reward him generously.

(Alternate Spelling: Asqalaanee, Asqalanee)

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Fiqh As Sawm

Islamic Rulings Surrounding Ramadhan and Fasting. Based on “Manar As Sabeel Fi Sharh Ad Daleel” Of Shaykh Ibraheem ibn Duwaiyan (d. 1353 AH) as explained by Br. Salim Morgan. Transcribed and Edited By Ibn Al Hyderabadee

Prologue Introduction

Chapter 1: Fasting in Ramadhaan
1. A pillar of Islam 2. Obligation of Fasting 3. Sighting of the Moon for start of Ramadhaan 4. One reliable witness' presence is sufficient 5. Conditions that make Ramadhan Obligatory for an Individual 6. Expiation for the inability to fast due to age or illness 7. Requirements of a valid fast 8. Obligations to fulfill during fasting 9. Recommended acts of fasting

Chapter 2: Permissions and Prohibitions

1. Impermissible to break fast during Ramadhan 2. Prohibited to fast for a woman in her menstrual or post-partum bleedin 3. Obligatory to break it when it is required to save a person’s life 4. Recommended to break fast for one who is ill and fears harm from fasting. 5. Recommended to break fast when one is traveling 6. Permissible for one to break fast who begins a journey while fasting 7. Permissible for a pregnant or nursing (breast feeding) woman 8. Change of condition of a person doesn’t obligate one to refrain from eating and drinking the rest of the day. 9. Prohibited to fast a voluntary fast instead of an obligatory one.

Chapter 3: That which Invalidates Your Fast

1. Intentional Intake of anything into the abdomen 2. Intention to break fast 3. Fluctuating Intention to fast 4. Vomiting intentionally 5. Menstruation or Post Partum Bleeding 6. Masturbation 7. Marital Relations 8. Cupping for both parties 9. Death 10. Apostasy 11. Above are Exempted in some cases

Chapter 4: Repayment
1. Missing a day of fast in Ramadhan
2. When does one make up a missed fast
3. If missed fast are not made up until few dats before next Ramadhan
4. Missed fasts first or voluntary?

Chapter 5: Recommended, Disliked, and Impermissible Days of Fasting
1. Recommended Every Other Day Sawn Dawood
2. The three white days of every Islamic month
3. Six days of Shawwaal
4. Month of Muharram and the 10th
5. Ten days of Dhil Hijja and that of Arafat
6. Disliking of the month of Rajab
7. Disliking of the day of Friday
8. Disliking of the 30th of Shabaan
9. Impermissibility of fasting on the two Eids
10. Completing of a voluntary fast is not Wajib

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