Compilation of the Islamic Sciences

al Hāfidh Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalānī (rahīmullāh – d. 852 AH) said:

“From that which occurred was: compilation of hadīth, then tafsīr, then the compilation of issues of fiqh (jurisprudence) eminating from pure opinion, and then the compilation of matters related to actions of the heart.

As for the first matter: It was opposed by ‘Umar (), Abu Mūsā al Ash’arī () and a few others whilst the majority allowed it.

As for the second: It was opposed by a group from the Tābiūn such as Imām ash Sha’bī (d.104H) and a small group. Imām Ahmad (d. 241 AH)’s opposition of this intensified.

Also from that which occurred was the compilation of the sayings about Usūl ad Dīn (fundamentals of the Religion). Some embarked to affirm it (ie the attributes of Allāh), whilst others negated it. The extremists amongst the former went to the extent of making tashbīh (resembling Allāh to his creation), whilst the extremists amongst the latter went to the extent of making ta’tīl (denying the attributes of Allāh). The rejection of this from the Salaf such as Imām Abū Hanīfah (d.150H), Qādī Abū Yūsuf (d.182H) and Imām ash Shāfi’ī (d.204H), and their sayings with regards to censuring the people of Kalām (philosophical speech and theology) is well known. The reason for such censure was that the people of ‘Kalām’ spoke about those matters which both the Prophet () and his Companions () remained quiet about. It is established from Imām Mālik (d.179H) that there did not exist at the time of the Prophet () nor that of Abu Bakr () or Umar (), anything from these desires – meaning: the innovation of the Khawārij, the Rāfidah and the Qadarīyah. Indeed, those who came after the first three excellent generations expanded upon matters which the Imāms of the Tābiūn and those who followed them, rejected.

The people of Kalām did not content themselves, until they filled the Dīn with issues and the sayings of the philosophers. They made this philosophy the basis and the fundamental principle to which everything was referred back to, and all that which opposed it from the narrations (of the Prophet (), his Companions ()and the Salaf who followed them) then ta’wīl (false interpretation ) was made of them, even if they were averse to the result. Nor did they content themselves with just this. They claimed that what they had compiled was the noblest branch of knowledge and the most deserving to be acquired; and that those who did not use what they had laid down, then they were from the laymen and the ignorant ones.

So delight is for the one who clings to what the Salaf were upon, and distances himself from the innovations that the khalaf (the latecomers who opposed the aqīdah and manhaj of the Salaf) introduced. However, if one cannot keep away from it, then let him take only that which he needs and let the way of the Salaf be his intended goal.”

[Fath al Barī (13/253) of Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalānī.]

Related Link: The Feud between the Traditionalist and Rationalist Movements of Islam through History


4 Responses to “Compilation of the Islamic Sciences”

  1. 1 Ali Baba and the Sufi Sheep November 9, 2006 at 2:36 am


  2. 2 Al-Hanbali November 9, 2006 at 8:04 pm

    asalamu aleykum

    seems like a great blog
    baraka Allahu feek

  3. 4 danishalhyderabadee November 10, 2006 at 9:54 pm

    al-Hanbali – waalaykum as salam

    lol….ahhah – nuqtah

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Fiqh As Sawm

Islamic Rulings Surrounding Ramadhan and Fasting. Based on “Manar As Sabeel Fi Sharh Ad Daleel” Of Shaykh Ibraheem ibn Duwaiyan (d. 1353 AH) as explained by Br. Salim Morgan. Transcribed and Edited By Ibn Al Hyderabadee

Prologue Introduction

Chapter 1: Fasting in Ramadhaan
1. A pillar of Islam 2. Obligation of Fasting 3. Sighting of the Moon for start of Ramadhaan 4. One reliable witness' presence is sufficient 5. Conditions that make Ramadhan Obligatory for an Individual 6. Expiation for the inability to fast due to age or illness 7. Requirements of a valid fast 8. Obligations to fulfill during fasting 9. Recommended acts of fasting

Chapter 2: Permissions and Prohibitions

1. Impermissible to break fast during Ramadhan 2. Prohibited to fast for a woman in her menstrual or post-partum bleedin 3. Obligatory to break it when it is required to save a person’s life 4. Recommended to break fast for one who is ill and fears harm from fasting. 5. Recommended to break fast when one is traveling 6. Permissible for one to break fast who begins a journey while fasting 7. Permissible for a pregnant or nursing (breast feeding) woman 8. Change of condition of a person doesn’t obligate one to refrain from eating and drinking the rest of the day. 9. Prohibited to fast a voluntary fast instead of an obligatory one.

Chapter 3: That which Invalidates Your Fast

1. Intentional Intake of anything into the abdomen 2. Intention to break fast 3. Fluctuating Intention to fast 4. Vomiting intentionally 5. Menstruation or Post Partum Bleeding 6. Masturbation 7. Marital Relations 8. Cupping for both parties 9. Death 10. Apostasy 11. Above are Exempted in some cases

Chapter 4: Repayment
1. Missing a day of fast in Ramadhan
2. When does one make up a missed fast
3. If missed fast are not made up until few dats before next Ramadhan
4. Missed fasts first or voluntary?

Chapter 5: Recommended, Disliked, and Impermissible Days of Fasting
1. Recommended Every Other Day Sawn Dawood
2. The three white days of every Islamic month
3. Six days of Shawwaal
4. Month of Muharram and the 10th
5. Ten days of Dhil Hijja and that of Arafat
6. Disliking of the month of Rajab
7. Disliking of the day of Friday
8. Disliking of the 30th of Shabaan
9. Impermissibility of fasting on the two Eids
10. Completing of a voluntary fast is not Wajib



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