Fiqh of Fasting: Obligations of Fasting

8. Obligations of Fasting
Just like any other act of worship fasting also has furoodh (obligations):

a. Abstention from fajr till sunset from that which breaks fast.
The Prophet (sall Allâhu’ alayhi wa sallam) described two fajrs, one that sits laying across the horizon with a dim glow and the other which shoots up. And the one that shoots up is the second fajr. You can usually notice these two distinctly when you live in a place where there aren’t many lights around. As for those who live in the city this is not easily seen. Allah said,

…وَكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ…

“….and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night),..” [Surat al Baqara (2) V. 187]

`Adyi bin Hatim (radi Allâhu’ anhu) told the Messenger of Allah (sall Allâhu’ alayhi wa sallam) that he placed two threads, one black and the other white, under this pillow as he sat to eat his sahuur. He continued to eat while glancing at the thread under his pillow to see whether he can differentiate between them. By the time he could differentiate between them, it was already daybreak. When he finished this story, the Messenger of Allah commented and explained: `Your pillow must be very vast (to cover the spaces of white and black threads)’ What is really meant is the whiteness of the day and the darkness of the night.’

Also the Prophet (sall Allâhu’ alayhi wa sallam) said that “Don’t stop eating suhoor by hearing the adhaan of Bilaal (radi Allâhu’ anhu). It is not the fajr that lays across the horizon rather it is the fajr that slides up.” And we know that during the time of the Prophet (sall Allâhu’ alayhi wa sallam) they made two adhaans for fajr, the first was early which was done by Bilaal (radi Allâhu’ anhu) And the second adhaan was done by Abdullah Ibn Umm Makhtoom (radi Allâhu’ anhu). We will explain as to what breaks the fast later on.
And the time when one breaks his fast is the time of sunset or Maghrib. Maghrib time is the time when you see the red in the sky not when its complete darkness. It is recommended for the person who is fasting to break the fast as soon as it is time for Maghrib and not delay it.

Related Posts:
Prologue
Introduction
Chapter 1: Fasting in Ramadhaan

1. A pillar of Islam
2. Obligation of Fasting
3. Sighting of the Moon for start of Ramadhaan
4. One reliable witness’ presence is sufficient
5. Conditions that make Ramadhan Obligatory for an Individual
6. Expiation for the inability to fast due to age or illness
7. Requirements of a valid fast
8. Obligations to fulfill during fasting
9. Recommended acts of fasting

Chapter 2: Conditions in which breaking fast is Permissible, Impermissible, or Recommended
Chapter 3: That which Invalidates Your Fast
Chapter 4: Repayment of Missed or Broken Fasts
Chapter 5: Recommended, Disliked, and Impermissible Days of Fasting

(Chapter 4 & 5 – Insha’Allah comming soon around Eid al Fitr)

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Fiqh As Sawm

Islamic Rulings Surrounding Ramadhan and Fasting. Based on “Manar As Sabeel Fi Sharh Ad Daleel” Of Shaykh Ibraheem ibn Duwaiyan (d. 1353 AH) as explained by Br. Salim Morgan. Transcribed and Edited By Ibn Al Hyderabadee

Prologue Introduction

Chapter 1: Fasting in Ramadhaan
1. A pillar of Islam 2. Obligation of Fasting 3. Sighting of the Moon for start of Ramadhaan 4. One reliable witness' presence is sufficient 5. Conditions that make Ramadhan Obligatory for an Individual 6. Expiation for the inability to fast due to age or illness 7. Requirements of a valid fast 8. Obligations to fulfill during fasting 9. Recommended acts of fasting

Chapter 2: Permissions and Prohibitions

1. Impermissible to break fast during Ramadhan 2. Prohibited to fast for a woman in her menstrual or post-partum bleedin 3. Obligatory to break it when it is required to save a person’s life 4. Recommended to break fast for one who is ill and fears harm from fasting. 5. Recommended to break fast when one is traveling 6. Permissible for one to break fast who begins a journey while fasting 7. Permissible for a pregnant or nursing (breast feeding) woman 8. Change of condition of a person doesn’t obligate one to refrain from eating and drinking the rest of the day. 9. Prohibited to fast a voluntary fast instead of an obligatory one.

Chapter 3: That which Invalidates Your Fast

1. Intentional Intake of anything into the abdomen 2. Intention to break fast 3. Fluctuating Intention to fast 4. Vomiting intentionally 5. Menstruation or Post Partum Bleeding 6. Masturbation 7. Marital Relations 8. Cupping for both parties 9. Death 10. Apostasy 11. Above are Exempted in some cases

Chapter 4: Repayment
1. Missing a day of fast in Ramadhan
2. When does one make up a missed fast
3. If missed fast are not made up until few dats before next Ramadhan
4. Missed fasts first or voluntary?

Chapter 5: Recommended, Disliked, and Impermissible Days of Fasting
1. Recommended Every Other Day Sawn Dawood
2. The three white days of every Islamic month
3. Six days of Shawwaal
4. Month of Muharram and the 10th
5. Ten days of Dhil Hijja and that of Arafat
6. Disliking of the month of Rajab
7. Disliking of the day of Friday
8. Disliking of the 30th of Shabaan
9. Impermissibility of fasting on the two Eids
10. Completing of a voluntary fast is not Wajib

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